The Ministry of Power, Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Ministry of Coal, Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas in more detail:
The Ministry of Power (MoP)
The Ministry of Power (MoP) is the nodal ministry of the Government of India responsible for overseeing electricity production and infrastructure development including generation, transmission, and distribution at the national level. The ministry also focusses on developing policies to reduce energy consumption, enhance energy efficiency, educate beneficiaries of energy conservation measures and increase outreach of energy related policies amongst all stakeholders at the national levels. To implement these policies across the 28 states and 8 union territories, respective state designated agencies (SDAs’) and state nodal agencies (SNAs’) are established at the state levels for promotion of energy efficiency and renewable energy focus areas.
The key policies and schemes from the MoP include:
The Energy Conservation Act – The Amendment Act empowers the Central Government to specify a carbon credit trading scheme.
The Amendment Act empowers the Central Government to specify minimum share of consumption of non-fossil sources by designated consumers as energy or feedstock. Different share of consumption may be specified for different types of non-fossil sources for different designated consumers. The Amendment Act substitutes the definition of ‘energy conservation building codes’ with ‘energy conservation and sustainable building code’ to mean the code which provides norms and standards for energy efficiency and conservation, use of renewable energy and other green building requirements for a building Prior to the Amendment Act, the energy consumption standards could be specified for equipment and appliances, which consumed, generated, transmitted, or supplied energy. The amended Act expands the scope of Section 14 (Power of Central Government to enforce efficient use of energy and its conservation) to include ‘vehicles’ (as defined under Section 2 (28) of the Motor Vehicles Act, 1988) and vessels (includes ships and boats)
Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE)
Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) is the statutory body formed under the provision of Energy Conservation Act, 2001, to work alongside the Ministry of Power and the respective state electricity distribution companies, state designated agencies, and state nodal agencies, with the primary objective of reducing energy intensity of the Indian economy across multiple sectors including residential, micro, small and medium enterprises, and the transport.
Focus areas of the Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) include:
- Buildings – Buildings are a huge source of energy consumption, right from construction, operations, and maintenance. Ministry along with BEE have notified policies and mandates at national and state levels, to curb the overuse of energy in the buildings, by enforcing minimum performance standards for new building construction and retrofitting or modification of existing buildings.
- Industries – Industrial sector is one of the largest energy consumers in India, compared to all other competing sectors. The sector shows huge potential in adoption of cleaner technologies, less energy intensive solutions and minimum energy performance standards. Ministry along with BEE have notified policies and mandates at national and state levels, to curb the overuse of energy in the Industries.
- Renewable Energy – The Ministry of Power, along with BEE have notified policies to reduce dependence on conventional fuels and promote usage of cleaner fuels for continued operations in Industrial and domestic sectors.
Website https://powermin.gov.in/ and https://powermin.gov.in/sites/default/files/webform/notices/Revised_Biomass_Policy_dtd_08102021.pdf
- Demand Side Management – Demand Side Management (DSM) has been traditionally recognized as one of the major interventions to achieve reduction in energy demands while ensuring continuous development. DSM has gained unprecedented importance and has become an integral part of almost all the central and state missions on promotion of Energy Efficiency. Ministry along with BEE have helped utilities not only to reduce the peak electricity demands and but also to defer high investments in generation, transmission, and distribution networks.
- E-Mobility – Government of India have undertaken multiple initiatives to promote manufacturing and adoption of electric vehicles in India with a hope that Electric mobility will also contribute to balancing energy demand, energy storage and environmental sustainability. In this regard, Ministry of Power has issued “Charging Infrastructure for Electric Vehicles – Guidelines and Standards” mentioning the roles and responsibilities of various stakeholders at Central & State level, for expediting the development of public EV charging infrastructure across the country.
- Standards and Labelling – A key objective of this scheme is to provide the consumer an informed choice about the energy saving and thereby the cost saving potential of the relevant marketed product. The scheme targets display of energy performance labels on high-energy end-use equipment & appliances and lays down minimum energy performance standards.
The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE)
The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) is the nodal ministry of the Government of India responsible for research and development, international cooperation and coordination in renewable energy sources. The MNRE is entrusted with the responsibility to expand the RE base in India and lead the initiatives to achieve the national targets, which was set at 450GW to be achieved by the year 2030, which has been revised to 500GW at COP26.
Sector wise policies notified by MNRE include:
- Solar – India has set a target of 100GW of solar power projects by 2022. With the revised target of 450GW by the year 2030, the CEA has estimated solar to contribute about 280GW . The achievement of these targets is expected to be met with supportive schemes for the solar parks and ultra-mega solar power projects, solar rooftop projects, distributed grid connected and off-grid solar projects, etc.
Website https://mnre.gov.in/solar/schemes and https://mnre.gov.in/Solar/policy-and-guidelines/
- Wind – India has set a target of 60GW of wind power projects by 2022. With the revised target of 450GW by the year 2030, the CEA has estimated wind power projects to contribute to about 140GW by 2030 in the overall energy mix. Within this target, it is expected that the 30GW capacity would be contributed by the offshore wind projects. In order to promote deployment of wind power projects, MNRE has come up with schemes to promote large scale wind power projects, both off-shore and on-shore, and wind hybrid projects.
Website https://mnre.gov.in/Wind/policy-and-guidelines and https://mnre.gov.in/wind/schemes
- Small hydro – The hydro power projects up to 25MW capacity in India are considered as small hydro projects. MNRE has setup a target of 5GW capacity to be achieved through these projects by 2022. MNRE promotes installation of small hydro projects through Small Hydro Power Programme.
- Waste to Energy – In India, the waste to energy technology consists of projects based on Biogas/BioCNG/electricity from agricultural, industrial and urban wastes. MNRE is supporting the development of projects through a programme titled “Programme on Energy from Urban, Industrial, Agricultural Wastes/Residues and Municipal Solar Waste.
- Bio Energy – In India, for efficient utilization of biomass, bagasse-based cogeneration in sugar mills and biomass power generation have been taken up under biomass power and cogeneration scheme. MNRE has set a target of 10GW expected to be achieved through bio-energy projects , guided by the “Scheme to support Promotion of Biomass based Cogeneration in Sugar mills and other industries in the country”.
Website https://mnre.gov.in/Bio%20Energy/policy-and-guidelines and https://mnre.gov.in/bio-energy/schemes
Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas (MoPNG)
Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas (MoPNG) under the Government of India, is concerned with exploration and production of Oil & Natural Gas, refining, distribution and marketing, import, export and conservation of petroleum products.
The key policies and schemes from the MoPNG include:
National Policy on Biofuels – The Goal of the Policy is to enable availability of biofuels in the market thereby increasing its blending percentage. Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas (MoP&NG) has notified that Oil Companies shall sell Ethanol Blended Petrol (EBP) with percentage of ethanol up to twenty per cent throughout the country
Ministry of Heavy Industries
The Ministry of heavy industry under the government of India, is responsible for endorsing the engineering industry, especially machine tools, heavy electricals industrial machinery and Auto Industry. The Ministry also supports the development of multiple intermediate engineering products.
The key policies and schemes from the Ministry of Heavy Industries include:
National Electric Mobility Mission Plan 2020 (NEMMP) – To encourage reliable, affordable and efficient EVs that meet consumer performance and price expectations through Government - Industry collaboration for promotion and development of indigenous manufacturing capabilities, required infrastructure, consumer awareness and technology; thereby helping India to emerge as a leader in the EV Two Wheeler and Four Wheeler market in the world by 2020, with total EV, sales of 6-7 million units thus enabling Indian automotive Industry to achieve global EV manufacturing leadership and contributing towards National Fuel.
The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC)
The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) is the nodal agency in the administrative structure of the Central Government for the planning, promotion, co-ordination and overseeing the implementation of India’s environmental, forestry and climate change related policies and programmes. The ministry helped launch the National Action Plan for Climate Change (NAPCC) in 2008 to mitigate and adapt to the adverse impact of climate change.
The key policies and schemes from the MoEFCC include:
India’s Updated First Nationally Determined Contribution Under Paris Agreement – To reduce Emissions Intensity of its GDP by 45 percent by 2030, from 2005 level 50 percent cumulative electric power installed capacity from non-fossil fuel-based energy resources by 2030. To create an additional carbon sink of 2.5 to 3 billion tonnes of CO2 equivalent through additional forest and tree cover by 2030. Mobilize domestic and new & additional funds from developed countries to implement the above mitigation and adaptation actions in view of the resource required and the resource gap.
Mission LiFE – LiFE envisions replacing the prevalent 'use-and-dispose' economy—governed by mindless and destructive consumption—with a circular economy, which would be defined by mindful and deliberate utilization. The Mission intends to nudge individuals to undertake simple acts in their daily lives that can contribute significantly to climate change when embraced across the world.
The Ministry of Coal (MoC)
The Ministry of Coal (MoC) under the Government of India, has the overall responsibility of determining policies and strategies in respect of exploration and development of coal and lignite reserves, sanctioning of important projects of high value and for deciding all related issues.
India consists of 28 states and 8 union territories. The actions related to renewable energy are undertaken by State Nodal Agencies (SNAs) and actions related to energy efficiency are undertaken by State Designated Agencies (SDAs).
The State Nodal Agencies (SNAs) are responsible for promotion of renewable energy in respective states/union territories in India on behalf of MNRE. The MNRE’s programmes are implemented in close coordination with SNAs for RE. Over the period the SNAs have developed considerable knowledge and experience in planning and implementation of RE programmes. SNA play a key role in facilitating incentives provided by MNRE, provisions and guidelines for successful implementation of the projects.
The State Designated Agencies (SDAs) are responsible for promotion of Energy Efficiency from the passing of energy Conservation Act of 2001 in the states/union territories in India on behalf of MOP. The MOP’s along with Bureau of Energy Efficiency’s programmes and policies are implemented in close coordination with SDAs. Over the period the SDAs have developed considerable knowledge and experience in planning and implementation of Energy Efficiency and Conservation related programmes. SDA play a key role in facilitating incentives provided by MOP, provisions and guidelines for successful implementation of the projects.